Statement of the Problem: One major goal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is to find an appropriate source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with higher differentiation ability.Purpose: In this experimental study, the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation ability of buccal fat pad derived MSCs (BFP-MSCs) with gingival derived cells (GDCs) were compared.Materials and Method: BFP-MSCs and GDCs were cultured enzymatically and expanded. The expanded cells were analyzed for membrane-associated markers, using flow cytometry. Then the ability of these cells to differentiate into osteocyte and chondrocyte was assessed morphologically and by mRNA expression of collagen I (COLL), BGLA and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) using qRT-PCR.Results: Flow cytometry analysis showed that both BFP-MSCs and GDCs expressed the characteristic stem cell markers such as CD73, CD44, and CD90, whereas they did not express hematopoietic markers. Mineralized calcium deposition was observed apparently in BFP-MSCs cultured in osteogenic medium but GDCs showed fewer mineralized nodules. The mRNA expression levels of BGLA and BMP2 showed 7×105 and 733-fold more mRNA expression in BFP-MSCs treated with differentiation media compared to the control group. In chondrogenic differentiation, BFP-MSCs transformed from a spindle to a cuboidal shape while GDCs showed only a slight transformation. In addition, mRNA expression of COLL showed 282-fold higher expression in BFP-MSCs in comparison to the control group. Such significant difference in mRNA expression of BGLA, BMP2, and COLL was not observed in GDCs compared to their corresponding controls.Conclusion: Based on the present results, BFP yields a greater proportion of stem cells compared to gingiva. Therefore, this tissue can be introduced as an easily available source for the treatment of periodontal defects and other maxillofacial injuries.