Statement of the Problem: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) may show a poor correlation between their clinical findings and radiological characteristics.Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the osseous alterations of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects by employing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.Materials and Method: In this study, CBCT images of 120 temporomandibular joints in 30 patients with TMJ disorder and 30 age- and sex-matched individuals without TMJ complaints were evaluated. Osteoarticular derangements of the joint were assessed by two experienced examiners. Data was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test (p <0.05). Results: Out of 120 CBCT images (60 in each group), at least one osseous change was observed in 90% and 86.7% joints in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, respectively. There were no significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects regarding frequency of osteoarticular changes including flattening (73.3% vs. 75%), irregularity (36.7% vs. 48.3%), sclerosis (20% vs. 8.3%), cyst (3.3% vs. 3.3%), erosion (13.3% vs. 21.7%), hypoplasia (3.3% vs. 5%), ankylosis (1.7% vs. Zero), osteophyte (43.3% vs. 40%), decrease joint space (3.3% vs. 3.3%), and increase joint space (5% vs. 5%). (p> 0.05)Conclusion: By employing CBCT as a modern diagnostic imaging tool, findings of this study revealed that the frequency of various temporomandibular joint alterations on CBCT images is comparable in patients with and without TMD complaints, suggesting that some people with TMJ structural damage may not display clinical manifestations. Moreover, CBCT imaging might not be necessary for TMD patients and more attention should be given to clinical examination.