Statement of the Problem: Alteration in salivary composition and its effect on the oral cavity in diabetic child patients remains equivocal.
Purpose: This study was done to assess the relationship between salivary factors and gingival status in children with type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).
Materials and Method: In this cross-sectional study,120 subjects aged 6-16 years (60 well-controlled and poorly-controlled diabetics and 60 healthy individuals) were examined to determine the gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI). The unstimulated saliva samples were collected to measure the salivary triglyceride, Cholesterol, Albumin, α-Amylase, total protein levels by the laboratory kits. Total antioxidant capacity and the free radicals scavenger index were measured by the Ferric Reducing Ability Of Plasma (FRAP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Data were analyzed by parametric and non-parametric, Pearson correlation, and T-tests at a 5% error level.
Results: GI of diabetics was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals (1.51± 0.71 and 0.9±0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the PI of diabetics compared to healthy volunteers (1.59±0.69, 1.63±0.74, respectively). The levels of salivary Triglyceride and Cholesterol, Albumin and Total proteins in healthy subjects were significantly higher than those of people with DM (p < 0.001). A significantly more salivary α-Amylase activity was found in diabetics compared to non-diabetics (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in terms of DPPH (95.5, 95.9%, respectively) and FRAP (9.77±0.13, 9.78±0.12 (µmol/ mL), respectively).
Conclusion: More gingival inflammation and salivary α-Amylase activity and lower level of salivary lipids, Albumin, and total proteins were found in diabetic patients, but there was no association between the level of lipids, proteins, and the total antioxidant capacity of saliva with periodontal health indicators in patients with DM and healthy individuals.