Statement of the Problem: Composite restoration failures may occur because of different factors. In these situations, the repair of a composite restoration has many advantages over replacement such as saving time, lower cost, and lower risk of excessive removal of sound tooth structure and subsequent pulp exposure.
Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of two surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) of new composite to old composite.
Materials and Method: In this in vitro study ,60 composite discs were fabricated using a plexiglass mold measuring 4 mm in thickness and 7 mm in diameter, and were randomly divided into three groups (n=20). In group 1, the bonding procedure was done with no modification. After roughening of one surface in all remaining samples, chloroform (CHCl3) was applied on the surface of samples in group 2 and phosphoric acid 35% was applied on the surface of the samples in group 3. PermaSeal was then applied in all samples and new composites were bonded to the surface. The samples were stored in distilled water for one week and were then subjected to 500 thermal cycles and shear bond strength between two layers of composite and mode of failures were evaluated.
Results: The lowest and the highest SBS values of repair composite to old composite were noted in groups 3 and 1, respectively and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05).The difference between groups 1 and 2 was not significantly different (p= 0.197). The mode of failure was mixed in all samples of groups 2 and 3 and cohesive in group 1.
Conclusion: After grinding, the surface treatment with phosphoric acid did not increase the SBS of new composite to old composite, while chloroform increased the SBS almost to the level of the baseline in control group.