Statement of the Problem: Root dilaceration is a developmental anomaly, which was first described in the 19th century as an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and root of a tooth. Such an anomaly would potentially alter the dental therapeutic procedures and often demands special care. Hence, it is of great importance to diagnose dilaceration before starting any treatment procedure on the tooth.
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of dilaceration in the first and second maxillary and mandibular molar teeth in Shiraz, Iran, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiography.
Materials and Method: In this retrospective study, 472 teeth from 141 CBCT images were studied. Each tooth was assessed by CBCT to diagnose dilaceration, its severity, direction, and anomaly location.
Results: In this study, among 472 studied teeth, 136 teeth (28.8%) were diagnosed with root dilaceration. The most frequently affected tooth was the maxillary second molar tooth (45%). The results showed a statistically significant relationship between the gender of the patients and the prevalence of dilaceration. Most dilacerations were observed in distal direction, with a mild intensity, and located in the apical third of the roots.
Conclusion: In this study, CBCT was presented as an advanced method for diagnosing dilaceration in maxillary second molar teeth and especially in the mesial root, which can be influenced by gender and it can play an important role in designing the treatment plans.