Document Type : Systematic Review


1 Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran.

2 Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

3 Postgraduate Student, Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


Statement of the Problem: Management of gag reflex is a challenging process during many dental treatments. Various studies have been carried out to evaluate different pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques to control gagging.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to review the available evidence on methods proposed for managing the gag reflex.
Materials and Method: This systematic review adheres to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted in English and Persian based on articles published from 2015 to 2022 (February) in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ISC and SID. All studies were first screened based on their title and abstract. The quality assessment of articles was carried out by two independent authors. Then, risk of bias evaluation was conducted according to Cochrane parameters.
Results: In total, 1704 studies were identified via search. After reviewing title and abstract, 16 studies found eligible based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Following quality and risk of bias assessment, 9 studies included in the systematic review.
Conclusion: Based on the finding of this review, distraction techniques, nitrous oxide, and low-level laser therapy were found effective in management of gag reflex. The dentist should consider gag reflex management based on the type of dental treatment, gag severity, patient's age, and available capabilities.