Document Type : Original Article


1 Dental and Periodontal Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Dept. of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.



Statement of the Problem: Bond strength of furcation repair materials is an essential factor in clinical success. Studies on the effect of adding titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the push-out bond strength of commonly used endodontic cements for furcation perforation repair is limited.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding TiO2 nanoparticles to white Portland cement (PC), white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) on their push-out bond strengths.
Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 120 endodontically treated molars were assigned to six groups (n=20) based on the material used to repair the perforation. In three groups, the cements (white PC, white MTA, and CEM) were placed in pure form, and in the three remaining groups, 1 weight % of TiO2 was added. The push-out bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Games-Howell test (p< 0.05).
Results: One-way ANOVA showed significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the six groups (p= 0.002). The post hoc Games-Howell test showed that the bond strengths in MTA+TiO2 and PC+TiO2 groups were significantly higher than those in MTA and PC groups, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the bond strength between CEM and CEM+ TiO2 groups.
Conclusion: The incorporation of TiO2 into MTA and PC increased their push-out bond strength. However, it did not affect the push-out bond strength of CEM cement.