Document Type : Literature Review


1 School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.



Defects and dysfunctions of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc are responsible for the majority of TMJ diseases. Current treatments in this matter are usually short-term and only palliative, thus an alternative treatment that offers long-lasting repair is in great demand. In recent years great attempts have been made to prepare an ideal scaffold which best resembles the native TMJ disc in characteristics such as mechanical, physical and biological properties. This narrative review focuses on developments of the recent ten years in fabrication of scaffolds using decellularized tissues, natural and synthetic biomaterials for regeneration of TMJ disc and compared their properties. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using the following keywords (“TMJ” OR “temporomandibular joint” OR “TMD” OR “temporomandibular disease”) AND (“scaffold” OR “hydrogels”). Randomized controlled trials, randomized clinical trials, case-controls, case reports, and animal studies were included. Comments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and non-English papers were excluded. The study concluded that hybrid scaffolds have exhibited favorable cell attachment and proliferation. Synthetic scaffolds have shown promise in providing better control over structural properties; however, additional processes are often required to provide biomimetic cell signaling. While there is still much to learn about the ideal scaffold for TMJ disc regeneration, both natural and synthetic scaffolds have shown promise in achieving the functional, structural, biological, and mechanical properties of a native TMJ disc.